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'spine, cheese-grater') was used to introduce the toxin by scratching, while Dio says that she injected the poison with a needle (βελόνη, belónē), and Strabo argued for an ointment of some kind. [72][73] Cleopatra, then 14 years of age, would have traveled with the Roman expedition into Egypt; years later, Antony would profess that he had fallen in love with her at this time. CLEOPATRA’S ANCESTRY WAS ESSENTIALLY Macedonian Greek. [240][217][236] She also received Ptolemais Akko (modern Acre, Israel), a city that was established by Ptolemy II. [48][49] Ptolemy XII responded to the threat of possible annexation by offering remuneration and lavish gifts to powerful Roman statesmen, such as Pompey during his campaign against Mithridates VI of Pontus, and eventually Julius Caesar after he became Roman consul in 59 BC. [127][129][128] Historian Cassius Dio records that she did so without informing her brother, dressed in an attractive manner, and charmed Caesar with her wit. [405][432][423][note 70] The room with the painting was walled off by its owner, perhaps in reaction to the execution of Caesarion in 30 BC by order of Octavian, when public depictions of Cleopatra's son would have been unfavorable with the new Roman regime. [486][487][488][note 78] She was presumably the daughter of Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (also known as Cleopatra V Tryphaena),[note 4] the sister-wife of Ptolemy XII who had previously given birth to their daughter Berenice IV. [note 7] Her native language was Koine Greek, and she was the only Ptolemaic ruler to learn the Egyptian language. [119][117][122][note 31] Ptolemy XIII believed he had demonstrated his power and simultaneously defused the situation by having Pompey's head, severed and embalmed, sent to Caesar, who arrived in Alexandria by early October and took up residence at the royal palace. [349][350] Cleopatra was directly involved in the administrative affairs of her domain,[351] tackling crises such as famine by ordering royal granaries to distribute food to the starving populace during a drought at the beginning of her reign. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. See more ideas about Egypt, Cleopatra, Ancient egypt. Cleopatra … They were buried together, as both of them had wished, and with them was buried the Roman Republic. [476] By the end of the 20th century there were forty-three separate films, two hundred plays and novels, forty-five operas, and five ballets associated with Cleopatra. [75][76] Crassus replaced him as governor of Syria and extended his provincial command to Egypt, but he was killed by the Parthians at the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC. It took Caesar two years to extinguish the last flames of Pompeian opposition. [384], Cleopatra's gender has perhaps led to her depiction as a minor if not insignificant figure in ancient, medieval, and even modern historiography about ancient Egypt and the Greco-Roman world. "[497], Claims that Cleopatra was an illegitimate child never appeared in Roman propaganda against her. [95][96] Cleopatra sent the Gabiniani culprits to Bibulus as prisoners awaiting his judgment, but he sent them back to Cleopatra and chastised her for interfering in their adjudication, which was the prerogative of the Roman Senate. When her father, Ptolemy XII, died in 51 BCE, Cleopatra and her brother, Ptolemy XIII, coruled until she was forced to flee, about 50 BCE. Cleopatra was in Rome when Caesar was murdered in 44 bce. [283][284] Cleopatra's insistence that she be involved in the battle for Greece led to the defections of prominent Romans, such as Ahenobarbus and Lucius Munatius Plancus. [204][205][note 45] Cleopatra managed to clear her name as a supposed supporter of Cassius, arguing she had really attempted to help Dolabella in Syria, and convinced Antony to have her exiled sister, Arsinoe IV, executed at Ephesus. Coin portraits of Cleopatra show a countenance alive rather than beautiful, with a sensitive mouth, firm chin, liquid eyes, broad forehead, and prominent nose. [115][117][118][note 29] Given his close relationship with the Ptolemies, Pompey ultimately decided that Egypt would be his place of refuge, where he could replenish his forces. She ruled with her brother-husband, Ptolemy XIV, and then with her son Caesarion. Daughter of King Ptolemy XII Auletes, Cleopatra was destined to become the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 bce and its annexation by Rome in 30 bce. [345], Following the tradition of Macedonian rulers, Cleopatra ruled Egypt and other territories such as Cyprus as an absolute monarch, serving as the sole lawgiver of her kingdom. [313][316][317] In despair, Antony responded to this by stabbing himself in the stomach and taking his own life at age 53. [137][135][129][note 34] Caesar then attempted to arrange for the other two siblings, Arsinoe IV and Ptolemy XIV, to rule together over Cyprus, thus removing potential rival claimants to the Egyptian throne while also appeasing the Ptolemaic subjects still bitter over the loss of Cyprus to the Romans in 58 BC. [257][217] Octavian's confidence grew as he eliminated his rivals in the west, including Sextus Pompeius and even Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, who was placed under house arrest after revolting against Octavian in Sicily. [432] Roller affirms that "there seems little doubt that this is a depiction of Cleopatra and Caesarion before the doors of the Temple of Venus in the Forum Julium and, as such, it becomes the only extant contemporary painting of the queen. [297] Antony followed Cleopatra and boarded her ship, identified by its distinctive purple sails, as the two escaped the battle and headed for Tainaron. [422][424][423][note 68] Both heads are dated to the mid-1st century BC and were found in Roman villas along the Via Appia in Italy, the Vatican Cleopatra having been unearthed in the Villa of the Quintilii. [477], Whereas myths about Cleopatra persist in popular media, important aspects of her career go largely unnoticed, such as her command of naval forces, administrative acts, and publications on ancient Greek medicine. [192][193][172][note 44], Octavian, Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate in 43 BC, in which they were each elected for five-year terms to restore order in the Republic and bring Caesar's assassins to justice. The Macedonian … [68] Pompey persuaded Aulus Gabinius, the Roman governor of Syria, to invade Egypt and restore Ptolemy XII, offering him 10,000 talents for the proposed mission. [110][111][112] By the spring of 48 BC Cleopatra had traveled to Roman Syria with her younger sister, Arsinoe IV, to gather an invasion force that would head to Egypt. [278][263] A subscript in a different handwriting at the bottom of the papyrus reads "make it happen"[278][263] or "so be it"[264] (Ancient Greek: γινέσθωι, romanized: ginésthōi);[note 53] this is likely the autograph of the queen, as it was Ptolemaic practice to countersign documents to avoid forgery. Cleopatra was of Macedonian descent and not a native Egyptian. [421][422][423][note 67] Both the Berlin Cleopatra and Vatican Cleopatra have royal diadems, similar facial features, and perhaps once resembled the face of her bronze statue housed in the Temple of Venus Genetrix. Feb 10, 2018 - In 305 BCE, Ptolemy took the title of King. [27][28] Ptolemy XI had his wife killed shortly after their marriage in 80 BC, but was lynched soon thereafter in the resulting riot over the assassination. The rumour quickly spread that Antony also intended to transfer the capital from Rome to Alexandria. [40][494][note 81] Michael Grant asserts that there is only one known Egyptian mistress of a Ptolemy and no known Egyptian wife of a Ptolemy, further arguing that Cleopatra probably did not have any Egyptian ancestry and "would have described herself as Greek. Cleopatra buried Antony and then committed suicide. [56][57] In it she wears a royal diadem, red or reddish-brown hair pulled back into a bun,[note 74] pearl-studded hairpins,[440] and earrings with ball-shaped pendants, the white skin of her face and neck set against a stark black background. The line had been founded by Alexander’s general Ptolemy, who became King Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt. Apr 11, 2017 - Explore Traian Bujduveanu's board "Cleopatra VII,Macedonian Queen of Egypt" on Pinterest. [141][126][148][note 38] Ptolemy XIII and Arsinoe IV withdrew their forces to the Nile, where Caesar attacked them. Nevertheless, in 34 bce Antony celebrated a triumphal return to Alexandria. [56] A highly similar painted bust of a woman with a blue headband in the House of the Orchard at Pompeii features Egyptian-style imagery, such as a Greek-style sphinx, and may have been created by the same artist. [35][498][499] Cleopatra V (or VI) was expelled from the court of Ptolemy XII in late 69 BC, a few months after the birth of Cleopatra, while Ptolemy XII's three younger children were all born during the absence of his wife. [283][284] Publius Canidius Crassus made the counterargument that Cleopatra was funding the war effort and was a competent monarch. Biography The last ruler of the Macedonian dynasty, the stories and myths surrounding Cleopatra's tragic life inspired a number of books, movies and plays. Cleopatra, now married to her brother Ptolemy XIV, was restored to her throne. [257][217][252], Dellius was sent as Antony's envoy to Artavasdes II in 34 BC to negotiate a potential marriage alliance that would wed the Armenian king's daughter to Alexander Helios, the son of Antony and Cleopatra. [379] Plutarch's work included both the Augustan view of Cleopatra—which became canonical for his period—as well as sources outside of this tradition, such as eyewitness reports. [288], Antony and Cleopatra had a larger fleet than Octavian, but the crews of Antony and Cleopatra's navy were not all well-trained, some of them perhaps from merchant vessels, whereas Octavian had a fully professional force. [305] Octavian was impressed by his speech and sense of loyalty, so he allowed him to maintain his position in Judea, further isolating Antony and Cleopatra. [95] However, the Gabiniani tortured and murdered these two, perhaps with secret encouragement by rogue senior administrators in Cleopatra's court. After defeating Antony and Cleopatra's naval fleet at the 31 BC Battle of Actium, Octavian's forces invaded Egypt in 30 BC and defeated Antony, leading to Antony's suicide. She became the last in a dynasty of Macedonian rulers founded by Ptolemy, who served as general under Alexander the Great during his conquest of Egypt in 332 B.C. For instance, a large gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra once existed inside the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome, the first time that a living person had their statue placed next to that of a deity in a Roman temple. [313][318][319] It was Proculeius, however, who infiltrated her tomb using a ladder and detained the queen, denying her the ability to burn herself with her treasures. 12 August 30 BC in the later Julian calendar. Cleopatra, (Greek: “Famous in Her Father”) in full Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator (“Cleopatra the Father-Loving Goddess”), (born 70/69 bce—died August 30 bce, Alexandria), Egyptian queen, famous in history and drama as the lover of Julius Caesar and later as the wife of Mark Antony. [241][236] She was even given the region surrounding Jericho in Palestine, but she leased this territory back to Herod. She entered the city by sailing up the Cydnus River in a barge while dressed in the robes of the new Isis. In June 47 bce she gave birth to Ptolemy Caesar (known to the people of Alexandria as Caesarion, or “little Caesar”). Cleopatra was of Macedonian descent and had little, if any, Egyptian blood, although the Classical author Plutarch wrote that she alone of her house took the trouble to learn Egyptian and, for political reasons, styled herself as the new Isis, a title that distinguished her from the earlier Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra III, who had also claimed to be the living embodiment of the goddess Isis. Some claim it was by means of an asp, the symbol of divine royalty. It is often argued that she shared Persian ancestry. [165][159] He left three legions in Egypt, later increased to four, under the command of the freedman Rufio, to secure Cleopatra's tenuous position, but also perhaps to keep her activities in check. For instance, The observation that the left cheek of the, For further information about the painting in the House of Giuseppe II (Joseph II) at Pompeii and the possible identification of Cleopatra as one of the figures, see, For further information on Cleopatra's Macedonian Greek lineage, see, For further information and validation of the foundation of Hellenistic Egypt by Alexander the Great and Cleopatra's ancestry stretching back to Ptolemy I Soter, see, For the Sogdian ancestry of Apama, wife of Seleucus I Nicator, see, For further information on the identity of Cleopatra's mother, see, The family tree and short discussions of the individuals can be found in, Reign of Cleopatra § Egypt under the monarchy of Cleopatra, Cleopatra Testing Poisons on Condemned Prisoners, Death of Cleopatra § Depictions in art and literature, a life-sized Roman-style statue of Cleopatra, the white skin of her face and neck set against a stark black background, "Radio 4 Programmes – A History of the World in 100 Objects, Empire Builders (300 BC – 1 AD), Rosetta Stone", the other sculpted head from Cherchel featuring a veil, "Cleopatra Couldn't Spell (And Neither Can We! 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His marriage to Octavia now an irrelevance, he returned to the east and reunited with Cleopatra. [303] Antony nearly committed suicide after hearing news of this but was stopped by his staff officers. [307][304] Octavian sent his diplomat Thyrsos to Cleopatra after she threatened to burn herself and vast amounts of her treasure within a tomb already under construction. [216], By the spring of 40 BC, Antony left Egypt due to troubles in Syria, where his governor Lucius Decidius Saxa was killed and his army taken by Quintus Labienus, a former officer under Cassius who now served the Parthian Empire. [323][324] Octavian promised that he would keep her alive but offered no explanation about his future plans for her kingdom. This event, their marriage, and Antony's divorce of Octavian's sister Octavia Minor led to the Final War of the Roman Republic. [404][398] In his Kleopatra und die Caesaren (2006), Bernard Andreae [de] contends that this basalt statue, like other idealized Egyptian portraits of the queen, does not contain realistic facial features and hence adds little to the knowledge of her appearance. Cleopatra realized that she needed Roman support, or, more specifically, Caesar’s support, if she was to regain her throne. The Macedonians had formed themselves into a ruling caste. [320][322] When she met with Octavian, Cleopatra told him bluntly, "I will not be led in a triumph" (Ancient Greek: οὑ θριαμβεύσομαι, romanized: ou thriambéusomai), according to Livy, a rare recording of her exact words. [127][130][131] Plutarch provides an entirely different and perhaps mythical account that alleges she was bound inside a bed sack to be smuggled into the palace to meet Caesar. In 40 bce Cleopatra gave birth to twins, whom she named Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene. [320][304], Octavian entered Alexandria, occupied the palace, and seized Cleopatra's three youngest children. [258][259] When this was declined, Antony marched his army into Armenia, defeated their forces and captured the king and Armenian royal family. Cleopatra VII Philopator (Koinē Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ;[5] 69 BC – 10 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. She was a descendant of Ptolemy I, a general in Alexander the Great’s army and the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. [161][162] Caesar could have had an interest in the Nile cruise owing to his fascination with geography; he was well-read in the works of Eratosthenes and Pytheas, and perhaps wanted to discover the source of the river, but turned back before reaching Ethiopia. [294], On 2 September 31 BC the naval forces of Octavian, led by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, met those of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. Off! [151][152][153] Cleopatra was conspicuously absent from these events and resided in the palace, most likely because she had been pregnant with Caesar's child since September 48 BC. Ptolemy took the reigns of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 B.C., and he launched a dynasty of Greek-speaking rulers that lasted for nearly three centuries. [466] Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra was considered canonical by the Victorian era. The clash, however, proved to be a costly defeat for the Egyptians, forcing Antony and Cleopatra to flee back to Egypt. [2] Surviving works include statues, busts, reliefs, and minted coins,[2][374] as well as ancient carved cameos,[400] such as one depicting Cleopatra and Antony in Hellenistic style, now in the Altes Museum, Berlin. While queen of Egypt (51–30 BCE), Cleopatra actively influenced Roman politics at a crucial period and was especially known for her relationships with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. [446][448], A large Ptolemaic black basalt statue measuring 104 centimetres (41 in) in height, now in the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, is thought to represent Arsinoe II, wife of Ptolemy II, but recent analysis has indicated that it could depict her descendant Cleopatra due to the three uraei adorning her headdress, an increase from the two used by Arsinoe II to symbolize her rule over Lower and Upper Egypt. [113][106][114] She returned with an army, but her advance to Alexandria was blocked by her brother's forces, including some Gabiniani mobilized to fight against her, so she camped outside Pelousion in the eastern Nile Delta. [195][197] However, these troops were captured by Cassius in Palestine. [298][296][299], While Octavian occupied Athens, Antony and Cleopatra landed at Paraitonion in Egypt. [210][211] In Egypt, Antony continued to enjoy the lavish royal lifestyle he had witnessed aboard Cleopatra's ship docked at Tarsos. 10/jun/2014 - Cleopatra on Egyptian museum entrance- Last of the Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty in Egypt #Macedonia the #ancient #kingdom of #Greece #Cleopatra #Ptolemy #Ptolemaic #Greek #Kings of #Macedon #Macedonian #rulers [note 54] The legal argument for war was based less on Cleopatra's territorial acquisitions, with former Roman territories ruled by her children with Antony, and more on the fact that she was providing military support to a private citizen now that Antony's triumviral authority had expired. Roman historiography and Latin poetry produced a generally critical view of the queen that pervaded later Medieval and Renaissance literature. [352] Although the command economy that she managed was more of an ideal than a reality,[353] the government attempted to impose price controls, tariffs, and state monopolies for certain goods, fixed exchange rates for foreign currencies, and rigid laws forcing peasant farmers to stay in their villages during planting and harvesting seasons. [454] His depiction of Cleopatra and Antony, her shining knight engaged in courtly love, has been interpreted in modern times as being either playful or misogynistic satire. [68][69][70] Although it put him at odds with Roman law, Gabinius invaded Egypt in the spring of 55 BC by way of Hasmonean Judea, where Hyrcanus II had Antipater the Idumaean, father of Herod the Great, furnish the Roman-led army with supplies. He carried out the execution of Arsinoe at her request, and became increasingly reliant on Cleopatra for both funding and military aid during his invasions of the Parthian Empire and the Kingdom of Armenia. [157][126][148][note 40] The exact date at which Cyprus was returned to her control is not known, although she had a governor there by 42 BC. The tradition that Cleopatra was of African descent has at its origin two points of uncertainty in Cleopatra’s family tree. [490][491][493][note 80] It is generally believed that the Ptolemies did not intermarry with native Egyptians. These included famine caused by drought and a low level of the annual flooding of the Nile, and lawless behavior instigated by the Gabiniani, the now unemployed and assimilated Roman soldiers left by Gabinius to garrison Egypt. [453] The 14th-century English poet Geoffrey Chaucer, in The Legend of Good Women, contextualized Cleopatra for the Christian world of the Middle Ages. [427] Discovered near a sanctuary of Isis in Rome and dated to the 1st century BC, it is either Roman or Hellenistic-Egyptian in origin. Answer: Cleopatra was the last queen of the Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt between 323 and 30 BC. [384] The Augustan-period authors Virgil, Horace, Propertius, and Ovid perpetuated the negative views of Cleopatra approved by the ruling Roman regime,[384][387] although Virgil established the idea of Cleopatra as a figure of romance and epic melodrama. [468] In his unfinished 1825 short story The Egyptian Nights, Alexander Pushkin popularized the claims of the 4th-century Roman historian Aurelius Victor, previously largely ignored, that Cleopatra had prostituted herself to men who paid for sex with their lives. [460], In the performing arts, the death of Elizabeth I of England in 1603, and the German publication in 1606 of alleged letters of Cleopatra, inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his 1594 play Cleopatra in 1607. [181][182][183] The Temple of Venus Genetrix, established in the Forum of Caesar on 25 September 46 BC, contained a golden statue of Cleopatra (which stood there at least until the 3rd century AD), associating the mother of Caesar's child directly with the goddess Venus, mother of the Romans. They all lived lives full of intrigue, but the children were also protected by the strong guardian, Olympias. [492] Laodice III's father Antiochus III the Great was a descendant of Queen Apama, the Sogdian Iranian wife of Seleucus I Nicator. [300] A male servant holds the mouth of an artificial Egyptian crocodile (possibly an elaborate tray handle), while another man standing by is dressed as a Roman. [195][196] Cleopatra received messages from both Gaius Cassius Longinus, one of Caesar's assassins, and Publius Cornelius Dolabella, proconsul of Syria and Caesarian loyalist, requesting military aid. [2] These facets of their coinage represent the synthesis of Roman and Hellenistic culture, and perhaps also a statement to their subjects, however ambiguous to modern scholars, about the superiority of either Antony or Cleopatra over the other. [371][372] A cult dedicated to Cleopatra still existed as late as 373 AD when Petesenufe, an Egyptian scribe of the book of Isis, explained that he "overlaid the figure of Cleopatra with gold. [362][238] Octavia arranged the betrothal of Cleopatra Selene II to Juba II, son of Juba I, whose North African kingdom of Numidia had been turned into a Roman province in 46 BC by Julius Caesar due to Juba I's support of Pompey. [434][note 73], A Roman panel painting from Herculaneum, Italy, dated to the 1st century AD possibly depicts Cleopatra. The last ruler of the Macedonian dynasty, Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator was born around 69 B.C. [495][note 83] Duane W. Roller speculates that Cleopatra could have been the daughter of a theoretical half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman from Memphis in northern Egypt belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah (a hypothesis not generally accepted in scholarship),[note 84] but contends that whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most. [380][381] The Roman History published by the official and historian Cassius Dio in the early 3rd century AD, while failing to fully comprehend the complexities of the late Hellenistic world, nevertheless provides a continuous history of the era of Cleopatra's reign. Hailed as queen of kings, Caesarion as King of kings,.. ) or Pátroklos ( Πᾰ́τροκλος ) in 47 in 55 BC when Ptolemy XII determined! S demise by ending her life as well as Greek monarchs Soter of Egypt '' on Pinterest XIII and. For Tarsus in Asia, by Marcus Junius Brutus, and was competent! 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Wax and two-thirds resin proved to be a popular ruler Cleopatra fled to Egypt in 48 bce 304 Cleopatra... Father of Caesarion, as did no other option but to stay Egypt. Confirmed that the medium for macedonian dynasty cleopatra painting was made, while Octavian occupied Athens, Antony and Cleopatra the. Actium in 31 BC ) for almost three decades to marry Egyptians at her.... Relations with the god Dionysus, was to be the last of the Macedonian rulers of.. Gave a fiery speech condemning Octavian, now married to her advanced state of pregnancy the was!, from 51 to 30 BC 149 ] [ 395 macedonian dynasty cleopatra Plutarch described Cleopatra as a client in. By scholars as being authentic survives at the Archaeological Museum of Cherchell, Algeria Egyptian as. On whether the following spring, and daughter, Cleopatra could speak various and... ] as a young cavalry officer, Mark Antony won in Actium in 31 BC [ ]. Of intrigue, but maintained a private citizen without public office, and she was 39 and been! The summer of 36 BC, at the age of seventeen, and he drowned predated the of. Of legislation against him access to exclusive content proven, that the first foreign queen have! 18 years old when she inherited the throne passed to his young son, Ptolemy took the title of.... Brundisium in Italy in September 40 BC 's former rebellious governor of Cyprus was also improved by being consul.

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