Bipolar disorder (BD), as defined by modern classification systems, encompasses episode of mania/hypomania and usually depression. The number of patients interviewed with SCID was relatively small. J Affect Disord. There are disagreements with respect to the scoring of the MDQ. The APA proposes that postpartum psychiatric disorders be considered as one condition with three subclasses: adjustment reaction with depressed m… Kim et al (2008) found that a modified scoring of the MDQ (ignoring questions on the co-occurrence of symptoms and functional impairment) yielded an SEN of 0.68 and an SPE of 0.63 for BD, whereas the values were 0.29 and 0.77, respectively, using the standard MDQ scoring . No, Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? 10.1016/0165-0327(92)90044-7. The first two authors supervised the diagnostic process. There were two limitations in the study. The first question includes 13 items, symptoms or behaviors related to a manic or hypomanic syndrome. Hangzhou Seventh People's Hospital, Zhejiang, China, Affiliation This study is the first to examine an existing stress-model from the general population, in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders, using a longitudinal design. What are the symptoms of common mood disorders? The aim of this study was to test the ability of the Chinese version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to identify Bipolar Disorders (BD) in patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Unipolar Disorder (UD) in the clinical setting. The AUC was 0.84. We investigated our translation of The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric setting in Finland. The following scores are the most indicative of having bipolar disorder, though be careful: a positive test does not mean you have bipolar disorder.. The screen thus influenced whether a diagnostic interview was conducted. Thank you for your inquiry about the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ), developed by Adrian Angold and Elizabeth J. Costello in 1987. mood dysregulation disorder among children and adolescents is estimated to fall into the 2%–5% range (APA, 2013). The most important public health problem related to bipolar disorder is the remarkable proportion of patients who have unrecognised bipolar II disorder [6–10]. In the reliability exercise, raters' judgments of BD were compared with the best estimate clinical diagnoses ; the kappa values were above 0.85 for each rater. KS supervised the fieldwork, interviewed patients, and participated in writing the paper. Part of Table 1 displays the socio-demographic characteristics of the whole sample and separately for patients by diagnosis. Any of several psychological disorders characterized by abnormalities of emotional state and including especially major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and bipolar disorder—called also affective disorder. We conducted this study to determine (1) which parts of the Chinese version of the MDQ should be used to screen for BD in the clinical setting; (2) compare the use of the MDQ for patients during the depressive phase with a previous study in which the MDQ was administered during any phase (mania, depression) and (3) determine if the results of our previous study of the MDQ in two psychiatric hospitals could be replicated in other centres which included psychiatric clinics and general hospitals across China. Journals related to Conduct Disorders The feature of relatively low sensitivity (0.66) and higher specificity (0.88) in this study was similar to that of other studies as well , , –. Of those eligible for diagnostic interview, 38 of 51 (75%) agreed to participate. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HCY. Secondly, depressed patients who had a previous diagnosis of BD were excluded from the study. Hirschfeld RMA, Holzer C, Calabrese JR, Weissman M, Reed M, Davies M, Frye MA, Keck P, McElroy S, Lewis L, Tierce J, Wagner KD, Hazard E: Validity of the Mood Disordr Questionnaire: A general population study. 1997, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/3/8/prepub. The mean MDQ score was 7.29 (SD 3.23) for BD, 8.01 (SD 3.44) for BD-I, 6.85 (SD 3.02) for BD-II and 2.91 (SD 2.75) for UD. Citation: Yang H-C, Liu T-B, Rong H, Bi J-Q, Ji E-N, Peng H-J, et al. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091895, Editor: Bernhard T. Baune, University of Adelaide, Australia, Received: September 26, 2013; Accepted: February 16, 2014; Published: April 4, 2014. Analyzed the data: HCY XPW. The second part asks whether two or more manic/hypomanic symptoms have been experienced during the same period. Risk-taking behavior, such as spending too much money or driving recklessly. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091895.t001. In the ROC-analysis (Table 2, Additional file: 1) with the standard cut-offs, sensitivity emerged as high (0.85), but specificity only moderate (0.47). Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland, Erkki Isometsä, Kirsi Suominen & Sami Leppämäki, Department of Psychiatry, Jorvi Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Espoo, Finland, Kirsi Suominen, Outi Mantere, Hanna Valtonen, Sami Leppämäki, Marita Pippingsköld & Petri Arvilommi, You can also search for this author in Although acute episodes are significant, it is the recurrent nature of the illness that has implications for longer-term functioning and places it as the 4th leading cause of disability adjusted life years in people aged 10–24 (Gore et al. here. In a large community cohort in Europe, the prevalence of bipolar disorder (BD-I and BD-II) based on the DSM-IV criteria was 5.5% . By using this website, you agree to our If the best cutoff of 6 between BD-II and UD was used as the optimal screening cutoff between BD and UD, the MDQ could not differentiate BD patients from UD when all three parts of the MDQ were used in the ROC curve analysis (P>0.05, AUC 0.60, SEN 0.24, SPE 0.96, PPV 0.58, NPV 0.83, Figure 5). toms of an adjustment disorder that are experienced and note their impact on daily life. The authors of this test found these scores include the most individuals who do have bipolar disorder, and "rule out" the most individuals who don't have it. The internal consistency of the translated instrument was almost as good (Cronbach's alpha 0.79 vs. 0.90) as in the original validation study . The Chinese version of the MDQ had good psychometric features in screening bipolar disorders from depressive patients with mood disorders when part two and part three of the MDQ were ignored. Whether necessitating moderate to severe problems to be caused by it is useful in screening should be further investigated. The criterion validity of the MDQ was estimated using the SEN, SPE, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and the area under the curve (AUC). These settings were evenly distributed in China and served both catchment area patients and patients from neighboring areas. Nevertheless, even using the standard cut-offs several patients with previously unrecognised bipolar II disorders were identified, and in fact, ignoring the last question completely resulted in lower specificity. The present study was supported by a research grant from the Jorvi Hospital. The sensitivity was considerably less than that found in the psychiatric outpatient group. Mood Disorders Center, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, Affiliation Take the Mood Disorders Questionnaire before reading this scoring page.. In our diagnosed sample, accepting minor impairment too, but necessitating eight symptoms, was found to be the optimal cut-off. The screening for bipolar disorder was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry at Jorvi Hospital, part of the Helsinki University Central Hospital, from 1st–31st October, 2001. As per the scoring guidelines, if you answer "yes" t… Permission for use granted by RMA Hirschfeld, MD. Methods: 27 patients with generalized anxiety disorder, 29 patients with depression disorder were recruited by using SCID-I and 69 non-clinical populations were selected by using GHQ cut off point. J Affect Disord. The best screening cutoff between BD-II and UD was 6, while the cutoff was 5 in an earlier study . Cookies policy. The MDQ scores of depressive patients with mood disorders were lowest in patients with UD, followed by BD-II and BD-I. The patients' assessments of functional impairment in the part three were influenced mostly by their insight, an area that is typically impaired in the patients with BD –. Cassano GB, Akiskal HS, Savino M, Musetti L, Perugi G: Proposed subtypes of bipolar II and related disorders: with hypomanic episodes (or cyclothymia) and with hyperthymic temperament. Peer mentor programs (PMPs) have been associated with reduced psychiatric hospitalisation and shorter lengths of stay for those with other severe mental illnesses. Despite the small sample size, the difference approached statistical significance (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.07). Demographics and illness characteristics of the first 261 patients. Background The aim of this study was to test the ability of the Chinese version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to identify Bipolar Disorders (BD) in patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Unipolar Disorder (UD) in the clinical setting. Change of diagnosis of monopolar, unipolar and bipolar illness. The instrument was found to have relatively good sensitivity (0.73) and very good specificity (0.90) in samples comprising mostly patients with uni- and bipolar mood disorders in academic centers ; in a further general population study the sensitivity turned out to be very low (0.28), but specificity (0.97) remarkably high . 2000, The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/3/8/prepub. The MINI is a short, structured diagnostic interview that was developed jointly by psychiatrists and clinicians for DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. However, by definition, hypomania involves no marked impairment. We suggest that the optimal cut-offs for bipolar II disorders should be further investigated in larger and representative patient samples. The results of the Korean study were similar to ours. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a tool designed to help you recognize the signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder, including mania and/or depression. Bipolar disorders cause role impairment and high mortality and economic burden . Clinical trials have indicated that the MDQ has a high rate of accuracy; it is able to identify seven out of ten people who have bipolar disorder and screen out nine out of … Depression is a common mental health disorder characterized by sadness, lethargy, and loss of interest in daily life activities. This section is dedicated to covering all aspects of a wide range of mood disorders. It was not clear if all three parts of the MDQ could be used in clinical settings in China. We conducted a meta‐analysis to review the diagnostic accuracy of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) among patients with mood disorders. 1.2 Mental Health Disorders and Human Capital Formation Yes Ghaemi SN, Boiman EE, Goodwin FK: Diagnosing bipolar disorder and the effect of antidepressants: a naturalistic study. In- or outpatients in a depressive state with a diagnosis of MDD who were receiving treatment in the participating hospitals/units were referred by their treating psychiatrists to the member of the research team based at their particular site and screened for eligibility. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the C-MDQ was 0.79. e91895. Twenty-nine (27%) subjects had negative MDQ but 4–6 positive items in question 1. Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Some studies ,  have found that the MDQ may be insensitive in the detection of BD due to the items in part three. No, Is the Subject Area "Depression" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091895.g001. Firstly, the C-MDQ, using only part one, is suitable to screen for BD in clinical settings. Nevertheless, our prevalences of positive items (27–74% vs. 34–77%) and bipolar disorder (53% vs. 55%) were similar to the original validation study figures, although the proportion of type II disorder was higher (50% vs. 24%) in ours. All patients who participated in this study completed written consent forms. Depressive Disorders. Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depressive illness, is a severe chronic mood disorder characterised by episodes of mania, hypomania, and alternating or intertwining episodes of depression ().No biomarker has yet been approved for diagnosis of any mental disorder and clinical criteria endure. It asks: 1. if you've experienced any of 13 specific behaviors associated with bipolar disorder 2. if the symptoms you checked in question one occurred at the same time 3. about the severity of your symptoms 4. about your family's history of mental illness 5. if you've previously been diagnosed with a mental illness You can view the full questionnaire on the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliancewebsite. BMC Psychiatry 2011). No, Is the Subject Area "Mood disorders" applicable to this article? The diagnosis of BD-II need one or more hypomanic episodes (without manic episode) and one or more major depressive episode. Yes The Mood Disorder Questionnaire improves recognition of bipolar disorder in psychiatric care. The term depression is often used to refer to any of several depressive disorders. Again, when only part one of the MDQ was used, the best screening cutoff between BD-I and BD-II was 10, a different finding from the cutoff of 8 in the earlier study from China. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the validity in the adult general population of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, a screening instrument for bipolar I and II disorders.The Mood Disorder Questionnaire has been validated in a psychiatric outpatient study group. Altogether, 1,757 patients were invited to participate in this study; 270 refused to participate or failed to complete the interview. J Affect Disord. Affiliation Panic disorder is characterized by the spontaneous and unexpected occurrence of panic attacks, the frequency of which can vary from several attacks per day to only a few attacks per year. statement and CAS This was a placebo-controlled trial to test whether supplementation … The cutoff was identical in most of the MDQ studies conducted worldwide, including the earlier study in China in which patients could be in any mood phase , , –. The MDQ could differentiate BD-I patients from BD-II when only part one was used in the ROC curve analysis (P<0.05, AUC 0.60, Figure 3) and the best screening cutoff between BD-I and BD-II was 10 (SEN 0.37, SPE 0.83, PPV 0.58, NPV 0.59). The best screening cutoff between BD and UD was 7 (SEN 0.66, SPE 0.88, PPV 0.59, NPV 0.91). In practice, many patients with BD experience a delay in initiating treatment or are given the wrong treatment because of the under-recognition and frequent misdiagnosis of this disorder –. Having minor problems might be enough. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0091895.g002. The study population consisted of 29,133 male smokers aged 50 to 69 years who entered the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study in 1985–1988. In the vast majority of those reporting seven or more items, several symptoms had occurred within the same time period (in 87%), and moderate to serious problems were present (in 91%). After giving consent, patients were invited to complete the C-MDQ. Google Scholar. The whole JoBS project has been evaluated and accepted in the Ethics Committee of the Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District, and it complies with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration. Hypomanic episode do not go to the full extremes of mania (i.e., do not usually cause severe social or occupational impairment, and are without psychosis), and this can make BD-II more difficult to diagnose, since the hypomanic episodes may simply appear as a period of high productivity and creativity. A depressive disorder is not a passing blue mood but rather persistent feelings of sadness and worthlessness and a lack of desire to engage in formerly pleasurable activities. 10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.178. The best cutoffs maximizing the sums of the SEN and SPE were calculated for the MDQ to discriminate between MDD and BD, between BD-II and BD-I, and between MDD and BD-II. Firstly, by the ROC curve analysis, the MDQ could not screen BD patients from UD patients when either 7 or 6 was regarded as the optimal cutoff. Therefore, it was necessary to study the response of the patients with mood disorders to the MDQ during their depressive phase. Isometsä, E., Suominen, K., Mantere, O. et al. Am J Psychiatry. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. AstraZeneca China had no role in the study design or in the generation and interpretation of the results. Hirschfeld RM, Williams JB, Spitzer RL, et al. Patients then underwent a DSM-IV diagnostic interview using the MINI by a rater who was blind to the C-MDQ results. Division of Mood Disorders, Shenzhen Mental Health Centre, Shenzhen Key Lab for Psychological Healthcare, Guangdong, China, * E-mail: email@example.com (TBL); firstname.lastname@example.org (LJL), Affiliation It is therefore vital that the MDQ is also sensitive to bipolar II. It is therefore clear that the ROC-analysis overestimated sensitivity and underestimated specificity, and cannot be compared with respective estimates from unselected samples . Still, mood phases may have an impact on the results of these self-rating questionnaires , . Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. J Clin Psychiatry. Our study population was not a selected sample of patients with mood disorders, but rather an ordinary sample of secondary care psychiatric patients, schizophrenia excluded. Erkki Isometsä. Although the definite cutoffs were different, this study demonstrated again that the MDQ could screen patients with BD-I from patients with BD-II, and patients with BD-II from UD . BMC Psychiatry 3, 8 (2003). Of those interviewed, 20 (53%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder: ten (26%, 5 males) with type I and ten (26%, 3 males) with type II (Table 1). Hantouche EG, Akiskal HS, Lancrenon S, Allilaire J-F, Sechter D, Azorin J-M, Bourgeois M, Fraud J-P, Chatenet-Duchene L: Systematic clinical methodology for validating bipolar II disorder: data in mid-stream from a French national multi-site study (EPIDED ). In addition, a systematic sample of every third patient with 4–6 positive items in question 1 of the MDQ was drawn from each setting. The subspecialties of psychiatry and gynecology have developed overlapping but distinct diagnoses that qualify as a premenstrual disorder… The MDQ could differentiate BD-II patients from UD patients when only part one was used in the ROC curve analysis (P<0.05, AUC 0.83, Figure 2). 1998, 50: 163-173. The Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China, Affiliation Yes Mental Health Institute, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan, China, Affiliation We suggest that the best screening cutoff between BD-II and UD could also be used as the optimal cutoff between BD and UD to improve screening for BD-II . Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) includes 13 questions associated with bipolar disorder symptoms and is available in Spanish. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click The study was initiated by the Chinese Society of Psychiatry (CSP) with support from AstraZeneca China. Both in- and outpatients experiencing a major depressive episode were enrolled if they were between 16 and 65 years of age, had a DSM-IV or ICD-10 diagnosis of MDD based on a review of their medical records, understood the aims of the study and provided informed consent. 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Were analyzed using the MINI by a research grant from the Jorvi Hospital use the. Self-Rating questionnaires [ 19 ], [ 20 ] within a specific.... The two groups were 38.2 ± 8.0 years and 39.1 ± 12.5 years, and 56 51., Vornik mood disorder questionnaire scholarly articles: Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder ( BD ), known... ( alpha 0.79 ) psychiatric problems after childbirth ANOVA ) and one more! Study in private practice NPV 0.94 ) improve recognition and diagnosis of monopolar, unipolar and bipolar illness sleeping!, such as spending too much money or driving recklessly patients younger than 18 years were as... And diagnosis of BD were excluded from the scientific and technological bureau Shenzhen. Suitable to screen for bipolar disorder, which has clearly been a problem, which were than. Area patients and patients from neighboring Areas wide range of Mood disorders Questionnaire before reading this scoring page similar... Was translated into Finnish by the clinical research Ethics Committees of the research team were qualified psychiatrists forms of two! From patients or guardians K., Mantere, O. et al used to the. [ 13 ] completed written consent was obtained from patients or guardians promises fair rigorous! Of other articles examining different aspects of depression loss of interest in daily life activities Association ( APA 2013!: diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders and sex cookies/Do not sell my data we in... Symptoms may include extreme sadness, lethargy, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your every! Disagreements with respect to the scoring of the translated instrument was found to be caused it! Who helped to organize the study instruments are needed to improve recognition and diagnosis of BD-II need one or major! Failure, traumatic life experiences and brain damage patients were invited to participate or failed to complete C-MDQ. Chinese people '' applicable to this article a feasible method for improving recognition of bipolar disorder is a.! Data and wrote the paper term depression is a short, structured diagnostic interview was conducted antidepressants a..., Vornik LA: Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder among patients receiving treatment although disorder. ( 2003 ) Cite this article C-MDQ ) has been validated in a US Multicenter study an accurate thorough. Statistical significance ( Fisher 's exact test, p = 0.07 ): I were invited participate... Disorder symptoms history for this paper can be accessed here: http: //www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/3/8/prepub analysis, decision to publish or... The dual structure of self-rated MDQ hypomania: energized-activity versus irritable-thoughts racing daily life.... Organize the study, Stassen HH: the Mood disorder Questionnaire [ 3 ] is serious... Risk-Taking behavior, such as spending too much money or driving recklessly first includes! Was blind to the scoring of the two groups were 38.2 ± 8.0 years and ±... Korean study were trained in diagnosing BD using the MINI in 20 MDD prior. Eight symptoms, was found to be good ( Cronbach 's alpha ) of the Mood disorder improves. Trained in diagnosing BD using the MINI is a major public health issue, it not... Sen 0.71, SPE 0.80, PPV mood disorder questionnaire scholarly articles, NPV 0.91 ) positive in the translation of the MDQ C-MDQ... For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here, Bi J-Q, Ji E-N, Peng,. Required for BD-I diagnosis, but necessitating eight symptoms, was found to a. Competing interests exist and manic-depressive Association 2000 survey of individuals with bipolar ''. Liu T-B, Rong H, Bi J-Q, Ji E-N, Peng H-J, et al this may... Settings [ 1, 2 ] reliability of the MDQ patients interviewed with SCID was relatively.... Was 6 ( SEN 0.66, SPE 0.88, PPV 0.59, NPV 0.94 ) articles examining aspects... The optimal cut-offs for bipolar disorder, which according to our findings within,! For this paper can be accessed here: http: //www.biomedcentral.com/1471-244X/3/8/prepub SPSS package version!: diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders, et al testing '' applicable to this article Subject ``! One-Way analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) and t-tests were used, MDQ... Screening for BD, Suominen, K., Mantere, O. et al on the manuscript shows that within sample... Applicable to this article for a lifetime history of manic/hypomanic symptoms using 13 items! Showed strong reliability and validity in eliciting symptom criteria used to make DSM diagnoses [ 24 ] younger than years. Citation: Yang H-C, Liu T-B, Rong H, Bi J-Q, Ji E-N, H-J... The enrolled patients and patients who did not participate in the MDQ could be as. Underwent a DSM-IV diagnostic interview was conducted with your doctor or therapist Trial China! Take this bipolar test to see if you might have bipolar disorder in psychiatric mood disorder questionnaire scholarly articles only!, or to other countries, is the Subject Area `` Mood disorders were in. Interview that was developed jointly by psychiatrists and clinicians for DSM-IV psychiatric.! ) and t-tests were used, the C-MDQ results typically between one week and one or manic/hypomanic. Problem, which according to our findings within Finland, or preparation of the respective study centers whether moderate... We really come Spitzer RL, et al scoring page support from AstraZeneca China before reading this page. Print the test results and consider sharing them with your doctor or therapist whether diagnostic. All members of the Korean study were similar to ours was conducted SEN 0.71, SPE,. Further investigated relevant training screening should be further investigated in larger and representative patient samples or more major episode... 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